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PHP Scopes

In PHP, scope refers to the visibility and accessibility of variables and functions within different parts of a script. PHP has several types of scope, including global scope, local scope, and static scope.

Let's define each type and provide examples with clarifications:

Global Scope

$globalVar = "I'm a global variable";

function globalScopeExample() {
    global $globalVar;
    echo $globalVar; // Accessing the global variable

globalScopeExample(); // Outputs: I'm a global variable

Clarification: In this example, $globalVar is a global variable, and it can be accessed both outside and inside the globalScopeExample function. We use the global keyword inside the function to access the global variable.

Local Scope

function localScopeExample() {
    $localVar = "I'm a local variable";
    echo $localVar;

localScopeExample(); // Outputs: I'm a local variable

// Trying to access $localVar outside the function will result in an error
// echo $localVar; // This would result in an error

Clarification: In this example, $localVar is a local variable, and it can only be accessed inside the localScopeExample function. Attempting to access it outside the function would result in an error.

Static Scope

function staticScopeExample() {
    static $staticVar = 0;
    echo $staticVar;

staticScopeExample(); // Outputs: 1
staticScopeExample(); // Outputs: 2
staticScopeExample(); // Outputs: 3

Clarification: In this example, $staticVar is a static variable. It retains its value between function calls, allowing us to keep track of the number of times the function has been called.

Class Scope

class MyClass {
    public $classVar = "I'm a class variable";
    public function getClassVar() {
        return $this->classVar;

$obj = new MyClass();
echo $obj->getClassVar(); // Outputs: I'm a class variable

Clarification: In this example, $classVar is a class variable, and getClassVar() is a class method. They are accessed through an instance ($obj) of the MyClass class.

Understanding scope is crucial in PHP because it helps you control the visibility and accessibility of variables and functions, preventing unintended conflicts and allowing you to organize your code effectively.